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Writing

Planning

‘It is impossible to write any text without being familiar with the language rhythms and patterns that it involves. Indeed, it is impossible to write a sentence pattern without being able to say it – and you cannot say it, if you haven’t heard it. The language required for success at any writing task must become part of the children’s linguistic repertoire. To achieve this we have to structure units of work to provide the appropriate language patterns enabling the children to hear them and say them, read them and explore them so they really know the patterns well. It’s like teaching a new language. Language is primarily learned through interactive ‘hearing’ and ‘saying’ and the richer and more varied the language patterns, the better the writing will be. This is particularly important if children do not come from linguistically rich homes and they are not read to. It’s all about building up a bank of text types in their head so that the language patterns are familiar to them and become part of their linguistic competency. This awareness of the need to provide through imitation a language template on which the child can build an independent voice lies at the hear to the ‘Talk for Writing’ approach.’

(from ‘Talk for Writing Across the Curriculum’ by Pie Corbett and Julia Strong)


Warming Up the Word

Warming up the word consists of four main areas

  • Generating vocabulary – activating dormant vocabulary
  • Putting usual words in unusual combinations – this is about putting words together to create something new
  • Expanding ideas
  • Developing the imagination and imaging – being able to ‘see’ and image in your head and ‘look’ at it really carefully to explore it and find words to describe it

(with thanks to www.babcock-education.co.uk for this definition)
 

Included on this page are some documents containing ideas for ‘warming up the word’. These ideas can be used to start a literacy session off. They ‘warm up’ the brain, and are an excellent way to help tune the children’s minds into thinking and concentrating.

Warming up the Word Games

Warming up the word games work on the same principle as the practise that musicians or sports people put in daily in order to play at their peak.

These games can be used as part of literacy sessions or can be played in a spare 5 minutes are specifically developed to make some of the skills of writing explicit.  The essential idea is to play the game again and again so that the children become ‘fluent’ at it and really develop the skills that lie behind it.

We divide warming up the word into four categories:

  1. Developing vocabulary: Usually tapping into dormant vocabulary. We use only a small proportion of the words that we know daily.  In order to tap into the words that children know but don’t use we need games that help them to do this. 
  2. Usual words in unusual combinations: Great writing is not about the most unusual, biggest words being used but putting usual words together in unusual combinations. These games help children to combine words in different ways. 

  3. Expanding an idea: This is one of the key skills of a writer.  To take the seed of an idea and to expand it.  So often children find this challenging and write what is basically a list of events with a few details added in. These games help children to build upon an idea. 

  4. Developing imagination and imaging: It is frequently said that if children haven’t had any experience of something that they can’t write about it.  Although children do need first-hand experiences, they also need to learn how to imagine how something might be drawing on what they do know. It also helps if they can see images in their head and describe these. 


Developing Vocabulary

Name it!

This game is based upon the idea that one way to improve writing is to use precise nouns rather than general ones, e.g. poodle rather than dog. Give the children a category such as dogs, cars, shops, flowers and ask them to list as many types as they can - there is no need to record them unless you specifically want to. As an extension choose some of the suggestions and discuss what characteristics they have, e.g. poodle: trimmed, neat, tippy-toed, Labrador: bouncy, energetic, enthusiastic.


Found Poetry

Literacy Resources are one of the best ways to magpie words and phrases, allowing children to roll other's language across their tongues and make it their own.


Word Associations

I heard the presenters on Heart Radio playing a version of word association today (10/01/11) as part of a competition.  However you play it, it is a great way to develop quick access to words without thinking and you may just get some unusual combinations which is what we are looking for in writing.  The game is played in pairs.  You set the first word and then let children offer other words, try not to think but just say the first word that comes into your head taking it in turns. You may need to model how to play this first. 


Chain Link

This game is based around vocabulary generation and using the vocabulary.  It is a game that can be found in What Rhymes with Secret by Sandy Brownjohn (printed in 1982).  Start the children off with a statement such as:

The birds swooping in the clear blue sky.

Sky like an azure gem.

Gem of an idea in the air

Here, the children must take the last word and start off the next line/statement with it.  It demands that children think and use words flexibly. If this is played with young children, the lines do not have to follow on making sense but can stand on their own.


Usual Words in Unusual Combinations

Questions and Answers

You and the class will need to generate a set of questions being as inventive as possible.  You or they will need to record these so that they can be dipped into anytime you want to play this game.  The last time I played this the children asked things such as 'how does a computer work? , where is the sun? What is gravel?

When you want to play the game, dip in and choose a question and then try to answer it in the most imaginative way that you can.  Partner talk may be necessary here to generate answers before sharing with the class.

 I had the following answers to ‘How does a computer work?’

  • with the sweat and tears of my brother
  • using a bolt of lightning and friction from my fingers
  • it doesn't
  • with worms and viruses infesting your words


Three Columns and a Picture

This game is focused on usual words in unusual combinations and is based around an image from a book you are using as your text that teaches or that the children are going to write about.

Watch the video here to find out how to play this game: 


Word Orchestra

This is a usual words in unusual combinations game. Using a picture from the text, ask children to generate words.  Focus on what can be seen in the picture and collect as many as possible.  Write each one on a card for a child to hold and is big enough for others to see. Put a group of children in a line and act as a conductor.  When you point to a child they say their word.  Point to two or three children in reasonably quick succession.  If it doesn't sound right try other combinations.  If it sounds good, say it again and ask someone to jot it down.  The children can play this in groups and you can have a whole class orchestra, taking it in turn to conduct.


Thriller Whizz Cool

This is a game based on the idea that good writers use usual words in unusual combinations.  It works using an online word generator and is great fun:

http://literacyresourcesandideas.edublogs.org/2009/07/19/thriller-whizz-cool/


How does it go together?

With the children generate a list of nouns and then a separate list of verbs and to put a noun and verb together in an unusual way.  Looking out of my window I can see tree, grasses, street light, road sign and a randomly selected list of verbs rushed, slithered, dreamed, sat, wheeled.

Now I can start to put them together. The streetlight dreamed, the grasses rushed etc.  The children can then go on to create sentences choosing the ones that most appeal to them.  The sentences could be collected and made into poems. You could play the same game with adjectives and nouns.


Expanding an Idea

Fortunately, Unfortunately

The children will need to work in pairs.  Give them a statement to start off with, e.g. Mrs Simpson walked across the playground.  They then take it in turn to give another statement starting with fortunately or unfortunately. So it might go something like this:

fortunately she was going in the right direction

unfortunately she tripped over

fortunately she had skateboard pads on her knees

unfortunately she didn't have them on her elbows

fortunately .......


Tall Stories

The class are asked to imagine something has happened but they are not told what it is.  They must write down a couple of sentences beginning with 'It was so funny I.......', 'It was so awful I.......'

Organise the class so that they are in two teams and stand in a long line facing each other.  One team becomes the funny team and the other the awful team. Move down the line with each person saying their funny or awful statement.  The children need to add the correct expression, body language and intonation.


Tell Me More

In non-fiction this is a great game to play around with the content that you want to write about.  Start off with an opening gambit such as 'Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids.' and then someone says 'tell me more about how the pyramids are built or tell me more about the pyramids.'  You must then answer.  If you can't then you need to make a note of this and go and look up more information.  It really helps in this game if you let your partner know the title of your writing or purpose as that can often focus the aspects that you tell me more about. In fiction this is even easier as you just make it up as you go along.  'Tell me more about the character John.' Or the setting etc. This is a very high value game where children start to run the language of their text over their tongues to make it their own.


What if…..?

Give the children a situation, e.g. Spiderman has landed in school and then ask them to generate lots of what ifs.

What if he went up onto the highest part of the building?

What if he wore his pants inside his tights?

What if he lost his powers?

What if he picked up a child and flew off with them?

The idea at first is just to generate lots of what ifs.  Once the children can do this, then you can start to work on some of the ideas and how they might evolve.

Groups of children could take ideas they are particularly keen on and three using freeze frames show what happens as a result of the what if.  If you have been on our blueprints course, these ideas could then be fixed to a blueprint and a story developed.


Imaging and Developing the Imagination

See the Picture

This is an imaging game, designed to help children use the images in their own minds and attach words to them. Ask all children to create an image in their heads.  This might be a setting in a story they are writing, something that they are writing a poem about or an experience that the whole class have had on a trip.  Ask them to hold the image in their head and then ask:

  • What can you see?
  • What colours stand out most?
  • How does it feel?
  • Walk around your image.  What other things do you see?

Children then share with a partner their image and things that they noticed.  Finally jot down a list of words and phrases form their image. When children start this keep the walk around the image short and build up what they do over time.

Assessment

When children write, they have to orchestrate, combine and balance a range of skills and techniques in order to produce effective, interesting and thoughtful texts. Writing is the least difficult of children’s work to assess as the evidence is clearly visible on the page. Below is a table showing the overarching statements defining the Assessment Focuses and a child-friendly version to share with the children. The statements are generic so the level-specific indicators need to be accessed on the APP guideline sheets.


AF1 - write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts

  • Presenting ideas in ways which interest and engage the reader and make them want to read on.

AF2 - produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and purpose

  • Presenting my ideas to engage different audiences.
  • Knowing how to use the right language, structure and format for each type of writing.

AF3 - organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information, ideas and events

  • Writing flows so that ideas and events are linked together throughout.
  • The reader can understand the order of events in my stories and how I organise information in my non-fiction writing.

AF4 - construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between paragraphs

  • Relating ideas or events together in paragraphs.
  • Linking sentences with connectives and by adding further detail, actions or information to the paragraph’s key idea.


AF5 - vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effect

  • Starting sentences in different ways.
  • Using a variety of sentence structures to create different effects such as suspense, description, speech and action.

AF6 - write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases, clauses and sentences

  • Writing different types of sentences correctly.
  • Sentences make sense and are easy to read.
  • Using punctuation correctly and for effect.

AF7 - select appropriate and effective vocabulary

  • Choosing the best words to make my writing clear and easy to understand.
  • Using the best vocabulary to identify, describe, inform, persuade, explain and instruct.

AF8 - use correct spelling

  • Spelling high frequency words correctly.
  • Using spelling knowledge to attempt unfamiliar words.

Handwriting and presentation

  • Handwriting is well-formed and easy to read.
  • Presenting writing in interesting and attractive ways to reflect its purpose and engage the readers.

Writing APP Level 1 and 2

Writing APP Level 2 and 3

Writing APP Level 3 and 4

Writing APP Level 4 and 5

Guided Writing

Guided writing is an essential component of a balanced writing curriculum, providing an additional supported step towards independent writing. It contributes to the teaching sequence as exemplified in the Primary Framework. Through guided writing, children are supported during the different stages of the writing process. As an activity, it should be carefully targeted towards groups of children according to their current targets or specific needs. Within the teaching sequence, guided writing would normally follow on from shared writing, though not necessarily during the same session. Teachers should consider carefully the purpose of the guided session and select the children accordingly. The aim is to provide support that is going to help children to improve their writing and to work with increasing independence.

What are the benefits of guided writing?

Guided writing:

  • enables the teacher to tailor the teaching to the needs of the group;
  • facilitates the teaching and learning of individual children. Although guided writing is a group activity focused on the needs of the group, the teacher is able to observe and respond to the needs of individuals within the group;
  • provides the teacher with the opportunity to extend and challenge more-able groups of children;
  • encourages the children to be active participants in discussions about writing;
  • builds confidence – the group are all grappling with the same issues;
  • allows the teacher to give immediate feedback on success and the opportunity to discuss further areas for improvement.


At what stage of the writing process do I teach guided writing?

Time to work with a guided group is scarce so it must be clearly focused. Guided writing can take place at any stage of the writing process.


Before writing – to support children’s planning and drafting of their work

This should refer back to and build on the previous shared writing session. Activities might include:

  • supporting children as they formulate their ideas – this may incorporate drama or role-play;
  • reviewing objectives for writing and/or the children’s targets;
  • the teacher modelling the process of planning and drafting (this may include rerunning part of the shared session for targeted groups of children);
  • developing sentence construction and punctuation;
  • retelling a known story in the correct sequence and as a writer: in complete sentences (look at speaking and listening objectives);
  • planning a piece of explanatory writing drawn from a model discussed in the shared session:
  • oral rehearsal: in particular, those children who have poor literacy skills; for children with poor language skills.


At the point of writing

Support can be provided to groups as they begin to write or when they have already started to write independently (in order to support the revising process). Children can be supported to:

  • write the first or next paragraph of an explanation text and be invited to read it aloud to the group;
  • reread for clarity and purpose;
  • use alternative vocabulary;
  • use greater precision – choice of phrases, use of complex sentences;
  • use greater cohesion – use of connectives, consistency of tense, time, person and so on;
  • remember objectives for writing and be supported in checking their work against the success criteria.

Throughout, these sessions should be used to acknowledge and praise in order to facilitate constructive discussion with the intention of improving the writing. The teacher will invite comments and lead the discussion.


After writing – feedback sessions

After children have worked independently on their writing there should be opportunities for them to assess their writing – the use of peer support here is useful. After writing, you could:

  • support children to check their work against success criteria, edit, proofread and reflect on the impact on the reader;
  • review progress and targets;
  • discuss next steps in writing and set new targets where appropriate.

(from DCSF, 2007, Improving Writing with a focus on Guided Writing) 

EYFS

A high-quality literate environment, which reflects children's interests and ignites their desire to write, in itself is not enough to support all children in becoming enthusiastic and confident writers.


As a practitioner, you can play a crucial role in:

  • finding ways of engaging and collaborating with children in writing
  • creating interesting and purposeful opportunities to write both indoors and outdoors
  • planning higher levels of adult-child interaction that support children’s thinking.


It is important that adults develop an ethos where risk-taking is actively encouraged, so that even the most reluctant child will be happy to have a go at writing without fear of 'getting it wrong'.

The role-play area: Modelling writing for a purpose

The role-play area presents ideal opportunities for children to witness an adult modelling writing for a purpose within a play situation. As in modelled and shared writing, they have a chance to hear an adult thinking aloud about what to write, to see words and sentences appearing before their eyes, and to understand the purpose of the writing. The adult can model writing through joining in with the play on regular occasions, not dominating the play but taking part frequently enough for different groups of children to see writing modelled for a real purpose, which will encourage them to do the same, independently.

Activities

The vets

An adult in role as a vet writes out a prescription with children observing, talking about what their pet needs to get better. 'He's not very well so I’ll write down the name of some pills that will make him better.'


The garden centre

An adult in role as a shopkeeper, models the writing needed on a packet of seeds with a picture and the name of the seeds. 'Now, I'll need to draw some sunflowers, then write the word "Sunflowers".'


Small world play shop

An adult is in role as a manager who wants children to buy more toys and designs a 'Buy one get one free' card and 'Special offer' posters. 'We need to sell more toys so I’ll write this on a card "Buy one get one free". We’ll need lots of these cards.'


The post office

An adult is in role as a customer filling in a form and posting it. Name and age are required. 'I must write my name here… and my age here.'


The weather station in the outdoor area of learning

An adult in role as a scientist fills in a weather chart for that day. 'We'll have to draw a picture of the weather this morning and say what's happening.' 'I’ll draw a picture of some rain in this box and write the word "Rainy" under it.'


The DIY store

An adult is in role as a customer ordering paints from a chart. Copy the number, write the colour and hand it in to Customer Services. 'I’ll write the number in this box and the colour under it – red – that will do.'


A home corner

An adult in role as a mother or father models writes a shopping list linked to another role-play area outside, for example the garden centre. 'Now what will I need when we plant these vegetable seeds? Well, carrot seeds, a garden fork…'

 

Creating a community of writers in the Reception class

By creating enduring and positive attitudes to writing, you will be helping to create a 'community of writers' which all children in the class feel part of. All children, whatever their starting points, need close adult-child interaction to support them as writers and to give positive and frequent feedback on their achievements. Phrases such as those below can support children's enthusiasm for writing, and create the aspiration in children that they can all become writers.

  • 'That’s interesting! I like your writing.'
  • 'Tell me about your writing – it looks very interesting!'
  • 'Wow! Look at your writing – I’d love to know what it’s all about!'
  • 'What a lovely picture.'


The designated writing area may be very limited in some Early Years environments because of lack of space, but this should not mean that children lack opportunities to write.

It is important that adults encourage children to select resources for writing whenever these are needed, which may be from a designated writing area, or a clearly labelled set of drawers of resources for writing. Alternatively, the practitioner can provide additional writing resources in the continuous provision areas. You can be proactive and dynamic, re-stocking, changing and adapting the resources as you observes their use, responding to children's interests and requests and encouraging them to make their own books, letters, envelopes, notices and labels. Instantly-accessible resources for writing are extremely important if writing is to become an integral part of children’s play, whichever area they are in, be it indoors or outdoors.


Resources that children may select in a writing-friendly environment include:

  • sticky labels, for example, for their letters, parcels, for labelling things they have made, labelling things for the role-play area
  • paper in different shapes and sizes for any of their needs.


These resources can be used to produce:

  • books about their current passions, such as football, cartoon characters, magic stories, their pets, or fairy tales
  • notices and signs about important things in their play, such as 'The Cave – Keep Out!', 'Shoe Shop – Open', 'Don't walk on the seeds we have planted!'
  • shopping lists for baby food
  • writing cards and messages to friends
  • their own pieces of writing to display in their own designated wall space
  • captions to add to photos they or the adults have taken.


Children enjoy stocking a mobile writing trolley with resources to meet their writing needs of the moment, and they can be encouraged to push this outside when needed. Other resources to place outside in different areas can include:

  • an easel
  • clipboards and pens for drawing and writing
  • a bag of puppets, monsters and other soft toys
  • an easily erected tent or a sheet for an office, cave or den

 (from DfE, 2012 Gateway to Writing)


EYFS Profile exemplification
: Document outlining the level of learning and development expected by the end of the EYFS in writing. Examples of work are provided along with observations and commentaries. 

Useful Links

Improving Boys’ Writing: Four flyers aimed at helping improve boys' writing. They list key principles and then move on to look at a variety of techniques such as 'talk for writing' and 'visual texts' across all year groups. There are also links to other resources and ideas for continuing professional development. The flyers are: Talk for writing, Visual texts, Purpose and audience and Feedback on learning.

Improving Writing with a Focus on Guided Writing: This booklet is designed to support teachers to improve the teaching of writing across all primary year groups. It provides exemplification of shared and guided writing in Years 1, 3 and 5. The booklet defines key terms, highlights teaching methods specifically for guided writing and illustrates effective classroom practice in the teaching of writing.


Writing Games – Creative Games Sentence GamesWriting Games

A range of creative ideas for daily starter activities prior to writing. These warm ups encourage children to rapidly construct and vary sentences to ensure that sentence construction does not interfere with the flow of imaginative composition.

Guided Writing Activities: Activities to support each writing assessment focus. Clear and engaging activities are provided along with further links to help when planning shared or guided writing sessions. 


Transforming Writing by Literacy Trust
An evaluation of a project by the Literacy Trust which focuses on the use of formative assessment in improving children’s attainment, confidence and engagement in writing.

 

Bearne, E. (2002) Making Progress in Writing. London: Routledge

Corbett, P. and Strong, J. (2011) ‘Talk for writing’ across the curriculum. Maidenhead: Open University Press

Corbett, P. (2001) How to teach story writing at Key Stage 1. London: Fulton

Corbett, P. (2001) How to teach Fiction Writing at Key Stage 2. London: Fulton

DCSF (2008) Talk for writing. Nottingham: Crown Copyright

DfES (2008) Talk for writing in practice: the teaching sequence for writing. Crown copyright

Evans, J. (2001). The writing classroom: aspects of writing and the primary child 3-11. London: Fulton

Planning

‘It is impossible to write any text without being familiar with the language rhythms and patterns that it involves. Indeed, it is impossible to write a sentence pattern without being able to say it – and you cannot say it, if you haven’t heard it. The language required for success at any writing task must become part of the children’s linguistic repertoire. To achieve this we have to structure units of work to provide the appropriate language patterns enabling the children to hear them and say them, read them and explore them so they really know the patterns well. It’s like teaching a new language. Language is primarily learned through interactive ‘hearing’ and ‘saying’ and the richer and more varied the language patterns, the better the writing will be. This is particularly important if children do not come from linguistically rich homes and they are not read to. It’s all about building up a bank of text types in their head so that the language patterns are familiar to them and become part of their linguistic competency. This awareness of the need to provide through imitation a language template on which the child can build an independent voice lies at the hear to the ‘Talk for Writing’ approach.’

(from ‘Talk for Writing Across the Curriculum’ by Pie Corbett and Julia Strong)


Warming Up the Word

Warming up the word consists of four main areas

  • Generating vocabulary – activating dormant vocabulary
  • Putting usual words in unusual combinations – this is about putting words together to create something new
  • Expanding ideas
  • Developing the imagination and imaging – being able to ‘see’ and image in your head and ‘look’ at it really carefully to explore it and find words to describe it

(with thanks to www.babcock-education.co.uk for this definition)
 

Included on this page are some documents containing ideas for ‘warming up the word’. These ideas can be used to start a literacy session off. They ‘warm up’ the brain, and are an excellent way to help tune the children’s minds into thinking and concentrating.

Warming up the Word Games

Warming up the word games work on the same principle as the practise that musicians or sports people put in daily in order to play at their peak.

These games can be used as part of literacy sessions or can be played in a spare 5 minutes are specifically developed to make some of the skills of writing explicit.  The essential idea is to play the game again and again so that the children become ‘fluent’ at it and really develop the skills that lie behind it.

We divide warming up the word into four categories:

  1. Developing vocabulary: Usually tapping into dormant vocabulary. We use only a small proportion of the words that we know daily.  In order to tap into the words that children know but don’t use we need games that help them to do this. 
  2. Usual words in unusual combinations: Great writing is not about the most unusual, biggest words being used but putting usual words together in unusual combinations. These games help children to combine words in different ways. 

  3. Expanding an idea: This is one of the key skills of a writer.  To take the seed of an idea and to expand it.  So often children find this challenging and write what is basically a list of events with a few details added in. These games help children to build upon an idea. 

  4. Developing imagination and imaging: It is frequently said that if children haven’t had any experience of something that they can’t write about it.  Although children do need first-hand experiences, they also need to learn how to imagine how something might be drawing on what they do know. It also helps if they can see images in their head and describe these. 


Developing Vocabulary

Name it!

This game is based upon the idea that one way to improve writing is to use precise nouns rather than general ones, e.g. poodle rather than dog. Give the children a category such as dogs, cars, shops, flowers and ask them to list as many types as they can - there is no need to record them unless you specifically want to. As an extension choose some of the suggestions and discuss what characteristics they have, e.g. poodle: trimmed, neat, tippy-toed, Labrador: bouncy, energetic, enthusiastic.


Found Poetry

Literacy Resources are one of the best ways to magpie words and phrases, allowing children to roll other's language across their tongues and make it their own.


Word Associations

I heard the presenters on Heart Radio playing a version of word association today (10/01/11) as part of a competition.  However you play it, it is a great way to develop quick access to words without thinking and you may just get some unusual combinations which is what we are looking for in writing.  The game is played in pairs.  You set the first word and then let children offer other words, try not to think but just say the first word that comes into your head taking it in turns. You may need to model how to play this first. 


Chain Link

This game is based around vocabulary generation and using the vocabulary.  It is a game that can be found in What Rhymes with Secret by Sandy Brownjohn (printed in 1982).  Start the children off with a statement such as:

The birds swooping in the clear blue sky.

Sky like an azure gem.

Gem of an idea in the air

Here, the children must take the last word and start off the next line/statement with it.  It demands that children think and use words flexibly. If this is played with young children, the lines do not have to follow on making sense but can stand on their own.


Usual Words in Unusual Combinations

Questions and Answers

You and the class will need to generate a set of questions being as inventive as possible.  You or they will need to record these so that they can be dipped into anytime you want to play this game.  The last time I played this the children asked things such as 'how does a computer work? , where is the sun? What is gravel?

When you want to play the game, dip in and choose a question and then try to answer it in the most imaginative way that you can.  Partner talk may be necessary here to generate answers before sharing with the class.

 I had the following answers to ‘How does a computer work?’

  • with the sweat and tears of my brother
  • using a bolt of lightning and friction from my fingers
  • it doesn't
  • with worms and viruses infesting your words


Three Columns and a Picture

This game is focused on usual words in unusual combinations and is based around an image from a book you are using as your text that teaches or that the children are going to write about.

Watch the video here to find out how to play this game: 


Word Orchestra

This is a usual words in unusual combinations game. Using a picture from the text, ask children to generate words.  Focus on what can be seen in the picture and collect as many as possible.  Write each one on a card for a child to hold and is big enough for others to see. Put a group of children in a line and act as a conductor.  When you point to a child they say their word.  Point to two or three children in reasonably quick succession.  If it doesn't sound right try other combinations.  If it sounds good, say it again and ask someone to jot it down.  The children can play this in groups and you can have a whole class orchestra, taking it in turn to conduct.


Thriller Whizz Cool

This is a game based on the idea that good writers use usual words in unusual combinations.  It works using an online word generator and is great fun:

http://literacyresourcesandideas.edublogs.org/2009/07/19/thriller-whizz-cool/


How does it go together?

With the children generate a list of nouns and then a separate list of verbs and to put a noun and verb together in an unusual way.  Looking out of my window I can see tree, grasses, street light, road sign and a randomly selected list of verbs rushed, slithered, dreamed, sat, wheeled.

Now I can start to put them together. The streetlight dreamed, the grasses rushed etc.  The children can then go on to create sentences choosing the ones that most appeal to them.  The sentences could be collected and made into poems. You could play the same game with adjectives and nouns.


Expanding an Idea

Fortunately, Unfortunately

The children will need to work in pairs.  Give them a statement to start off with, e.g. Mrs Simpson walked across the playground.  They then take it in turn to give another statement starting with fortunately or unfortunately. So it might go something like this:

fortunately she was going in the right direction

unfortunately she tripped over

fortunately she had skateboard pads on her knees

unfortunately she didn't have them on her elbows

fortunately .......


Tall Stories

The class are asked to imagine something has happened but they are not told what it is.  They must write down a couple of sentences beginning with 'It was so funny I.......', 'It was so awful I.......'

Organise the class so that they are in two teams and stand in a long line facing each other.  One team becomes the funny team and the other the awful team. Move down the line with each person saying their funny or awful statement.  The children need to add the correct expression, body language and intonation.


Tell Me More

In non-fiction this is a great game to play around with the content that you want to write about.  Start off with an opening gambit such as 'Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids.' and then someone says 'tell me more about how the pyramids are built or tell me more about the pyramids.'  You must then answer.  If you can't then you need to make a note of this and go and look up more information.  It really helps in this game if you let your partner know the title of your writing or purpose as that can often focus the aspects that you tell me more about. In fiction this is even easier as you just make it up as you go along.  'Tell me more about the character John.' Or the setting etc. This is a very high value game where children start to run the language of their text over their tongues to make it their own.


What if…..?

Give the children a situation, e.g. Spiderman has landed in school and then ask them to generate lots of what ifs.

What if he went up onto the highest part of the building?

What if he wore his pants inside his tights?

What if he lost his powers?

What if he picked up a child and flew off with them?

The idea at first is just to generate lots of what ifs.  Once the children can do this, then you can start to work on some of the ideas and how they might evolve.

Groups of children could take ideas they are particularly keen on and three using freeze frames show what happens as a result of the what if.  If you have been on our blueprints course, these ideas could then be fixed to a blueprint and a story developed.


Imaging and Developing the Imagination

See the Picture

This is an imaging game, designed to help children use the images in their own minds and attach words to them. Ask all children to create an image in their heads.  This might be a setting in a story they are writing, something that they are writing a poem about or an experience that the whole class have had on a trip.  Ask them to hold the image in their head and then ask:

  • What can you see?
  • What colours stand out most?
  • How does it feel?
  • Walk around your image.  What other things do you see?

Children then share with a partner their image and things that they noticed.  Finally jot down a list of words and phrases form their image. When children start this keep the walk around the image short and build up what they do over time.

Assessment

When children write, they have to orchestrate, combine and balance a range of skills and techniques in order to produce effective, interesting and thoughtful texts. Writing is the least difficult of children’s work to assess as the evidence is clearly visible on the page. Below is a table showing the overarching statements defining the Assessment Focuses and a child-friendly version to share with the children. The statements are generic so the level-specific indicators need to be accessed on the APP guideline sheets.


AF1 - write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts

  • Presenting ideas in ways which interest and engage the reader and make them want to read on.

AF2 - produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and purpose

  • Presenting my ideas to engage different audiences.
  • Knowing how to use the right language, structure and format for each type of writing.

AF3 - organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information, ideas and events

  • Writing flows so that ideas and events are linked together throughout.
  • The reader can understand the order of events in my stories and how I organise information in my non-fiction writing.

AF4 - construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between paragraphs

  • Relating ideas or events together in paragraphs.
  • Linking sentences with connectives and by adding further detail, actions or information to the paragraph’s key idea.


AF5 - vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effect

  • Starting sentences in different ways.
  • Using a variety of sentence structures to create different effects such as suspense, description, speech and action.

AF6 - write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases, clauses and sentences

  • Writing different types of sentences correctly.
  • Sentences make sense and are easy to read.
  • Using punctuation correctly and for effect.

AF7 - select appropriate and effective vocabulary

  • Choosing the best words to make my writing clear and easy to understand.
  • Using the best vocabulary to identify, describe, inform, persuade, explain and instruct.

AF8 - use correct spelling

  • Spelling high frequency words correctly.
  • Using spelling knowledge to attempt unfamiliar words.

Handwriting and presentation

  • Handwriting is well-formed and easy to read.
  • Presenting writing in interesting and attractive ways to reflect its purpose and engage the readers.

Writing APP Level 1 and 2

Writing APP Level 2 and 3

Writing APP Level 3 and 4

Writing APP Level 4 and 5

Guided Writing

Guided writing is an essential component of a balanced writing curriculum, providing an additional supported step towards independent writing. It contributes to the teaching sequence as exemplified in the Primary Framework. Through guided writing, children are supported during the different stages of the writing process. As an activity, it should be carefully targeted towards groups of children according to their current targets or specific needs. Within the teaching sequence, guided writing would normally follow on from shared writing, though not necessarily during the same session. Teachers should consider carefully the purpose of the guided session and select the children accordingly. The aim is to provide support that is going to help children to improve their writing and to work with increasing independence.

What are the benefits of guided writing?

Guided writing:

  • enables the teacher to tailor the teaching to the needs of the group;
  • facilitates the teaching and learning of individual children. Although guided writing is a group activity focused on the needs of the group, the teacher is able to observe and respond to the needs of individuals within the group;
  • provides the teacher with the opportunity to extend and challenge more-able groups of children;
  • encourages the children to be active participants in discussions about writing;
  • builds confidence – the group are all grappling with the same issues;
  • allows the teacher to give immediate feedback on success and the opportunity to discuss further areas for improvement.


At what stage of the writing process do I teach guided writing?

Time to work with a guided group is scarce so it must be clearly focused. Guided writing can take place at any stage of the writing process.


Before writing – to support children’s planning and drafting of their work

This should refer back to and build on the previous shared writing session. Activities might include:

  • supporting children as they formulate their ideas – this may incorporate drama or role-play;
  • reviewing objectives for writing and/or the children’s targets;
  • the teacher modelling the process of planning and drafting (this may include rerunning part of the shared session for targeted groups of children);
  • developing sentence construction and punctuation;
  • retelling a known story in the correct sequence and as a writer: in complete sentences (look at speaking and listening objectives);
  • planning a piece of explanatory writing drawn from a model discussed in the shared session:
  • oral rehearsal: in particular, those children who have poor literacy skills; for children with poor language skills.


At the point of writing

Support can be provided to groups as they begin to write or when they have already started to write independently (in order to support the revising process). Children can be supported to:

  • write the first or next paragraph of an explanation text and be invited to read it aloud to the group;
  • reread for clarity and purpose;
  • use alternative vocabulary;
  • use greater precision – choice of phrases, use of complex sentences;
  • use greater cohesion – use of connectives, consistency of tense, time, person and so on;
  • remember objectives for writing and be supported in checking their work against the success criteria.

Throughout, these sessions should be used to acknowledge and praise in order to facilitate constructive discussion with the intention of improving the writing. The teacher will invite comments and lead the discussion.


After writing – feedback sessions

After children have worked independently on their writing there should be opportunities for them to assess their writing – the use of peer support here is useful. After writing, you could:

  • support children to check their work against success criteria, edit, proofread and reflect on the impact on the reader;
  • review progress and targets;
  • discuss next steps in writing and set new targets where appropriate.

(from DCSF, 2007, Improving Writing with a focus on Guided Writing) 

EYFS

A high-quality literate environment, which reflects children's interests and ignites their desire to write, in itself is not enough to support all children in becoming enthusiastic and confident writers.


As a practitioner, you can play a crucial role in:

  • finding ways of engaging and collaborating with children in writing
  • creating interesting and purposeful opportunities to write both indoors and outdoors
  • planning higher levels of adult-child interaction that support children’s thinking.


It is important that adults develop an ethos where risk-taking is actively encouraged, so that even the most reluctant child will be happy to have a go at writing without fear of 'getting it wrong'.

The role-play area: Modelling writing for a purpose

The role-play area presents ideal opportunities for children to witness an adult modelling writing for a purpose within a play situation. As in modelled and shared writing, they have a chance to hear an adult thinking aloud about what to write, to see words and sentences appearing before their eyes, and to understand the purpose of the writing. The adult can model writing through joining in with the play on regular occasions, not dominating the play but taking part frequently enough for different groups of children to see writing modelled for a real purpose, which will encourage them to do the same, independently.

Activities

The vets

An adult in role as a vet writes out a prescription with children observing, talking about what their pet needs to get better. 'He's not very well so I’ll write down the name of some pills that will make him better.'


The garden centre

An adult in role as a shopkeeper, models the writing needed on a packet of seeds with a picture and the name of the seeds. 'Now, I'll need to draw some sunflowers, then write the word "Sunflowers".'


Small world play shop

An adult is in role as a manager who wants children to buy more toys and designs a 'Buy one get one free' card and 'Special offer' posters. 'We need to sell more toys so I’ll write this on a card "Buy one get one free". We’ll need lots of these cards.'


The post office

An adult is in role as a customer filling in a form and posting it. Name and age are required. 'I must write my name here… and my age here.'


The weather station in the outdoor area of learning

An adult in role as a scientist fills in a weather chart for that day. 'We'll have to draw a picture of the weather this morning and say what's happening.' 'I’ll draw a picture of some rain in this box and write the word "Rainy" under it.'


The DIY store

An adult is in role as a customer ordering paints from a chart. Copy the number, write the colour and hand it in to Customer Services. 'I’ll write the number in this box and the colour under it – red – that will do.'


A home corner

An adult in role as a mother or father models writes a shopping list linked to another role-play area outside, for example the garden centre. 'Now what will I need when we plant these vegetable seeds? Well, carrot seeds, a garden fork…'

 

Creating a community of writers in the Reception class

By creating enduring and positive attitudes to writing, you will be helping to create a 'community of writers' which all children in the class feel part of. All children, whatever their starting points, need close adult-child interaction to support them as writers and to give positive and frequent feedback on their achievements. Phrases such as those below can support children's enthusiasm for writing, and create the aspiration in children that they can all become writers.

  • 'That’s interesting! I like your writing.'
  • 'Tell me about your writing – it looks very interesting!'
  • 'Wow! Look at your writing – I’d love to know what it’s all about!'
  • 'What a lovely picture.'


The designated writing area may be very limited in some Early Years environments because of lack of space, but this should not mean that children lack opportunities to write.

It is important that adults encourage children to select resources for writing whenever these are needed, which may be from a designated writing area, or a clearly labelled set of drawers of resources for writing. Alternatively, the practitioner can provide additional writing resources in the continuous provision areas. You can be proactive and dynamic, re-stocking, changing and adapting the resources as you observes their use, responding to children's interests and requests and encouraging them to make their own books, letters, envelopes, notices and labels. Instantly-accessible resources for writing are extremely important if writing is to become an integral part of children’s play, whichever area they are in, be it indoors or outdoors.


Resources that children may select in a writing-friendly environment include:

  • sticky labels, for example, for their letters, parcels, for labelling things they have made, labelling things for the role-play area
  • paper in different shapes and sizes for any of their needs.


These resources can be used to produce:

  • books about their current passions, such as football, cartoon characters, magic stories, their pets, or fairy tales
  • notices and signs about important things in their play, such as 'The Cave – Keep Out!', 'Shoe Shop – Open', 'Don't walk on the seeds we have planted!'
  • shopping lists for baby food
  • writing cards and messages to friends
  • their own pieces of writing to display in their own designated wall space
  • captions to add to photos they or the adults have taken.


Children enjoy stocking a mobile writing trolley with resources to meet their writing needs of the moment, and they can be encouraged to push this outside when needed. Other resources to place outside in different areas can include:

  • an easel
  • clipboards and pens for drawing and writing
  • a bag of puppets, monsters and other soft toys
  • an easily erected tent or a sheet for an office, cave or den

 (from DfE, 2012 Gateway to Writing)


EYFS Profile exemplification
: Document outlining the level of learning and development expected by the end of the EYFS in writing. Examples of work are provided along with observations and commentaries. 

Useful Links

Improving Boys’ Writing: Four flyers aimed at helping improve boys' writing. They list key principles and then move on to look at a variety of techniques such as 'talk for writing' and 'visual texts' across all year groups. There are also links to other resources and ideas for continuing professional development. The flyers are: Talk for writing, Visual texts, Purpose and audience and Feedback on learning.

Improving Writing with a Focus on Guided Writing: This booklet is designed to support teachers to improve the teaching of writing across all primary year groups. It provides exemplification of shared and guided writing in Years 1, 3 and 5. The booklet defines key terms, highlights teaching methods specifically for guided writing and illustrates effective classroom practice in the teaching of writing.


Writing Games – Creative Games Sentence GamesWriting Games

A range of creative ideas for daily starter activities prior to writing. These warm ups encourage children to rapidly construct and vary sentences to ensure that sentence construction does not interfere with the flow of imaginative composition.

Guided Writing Activities: Activities to support each writing assessment focus. Clear and engaging activities are provided along with further links to help when planning shared or guided writing sessions. 


Transforming Writing by Literacy Trust
An evaluation of a project by the Literacy Trust which focuses on the use of formative assessment in improving children’s attainment, confidence and engagement in writing.

 

Bearne, E. (2002) Making Progress in Writing. London: Routledge

Corbett, P. and Strong, J. (2011) ‘Talk for writing’ across the curriculum. Maidenhead: Open University Press

Corbett, P. (2001) How to teach story writing at Key Stage 1. London: Fulton

Corbett, P. (2001) How to teach Fiction Writing at Key Stage 2. London: Fulton

DCSF (2008) Talk for writing. Nottingham: Crown Copyright

DfES (2008) Talk for writing in practice: the teaching sequence for writing. Crown copyright

Evans, J. (2001). The writing classroom: aspects of writing and the primary child 3-11. London: Fulton